San Vincenzo is located on the Ligurian Sea, in the stretch of the coast south of Livorno, called “Etruscan Coast”. It is bounded to the north by the Municipality of Castagneto Carducci and to the south by the coastal park of Rimigliano, and inland from the coast it extends to the Val di Cornia.
San Vincenzo has been inhabited since ancient times. The first traces of human presence date from the Upper Paleolithic period to today: a fact that, in all likelihood is due to its location between the Metalliferous Hills and the Cecina and Cornia rivers. The strategic location of this area didn’t escape the notice of the Etruscans, who heavily populated it, because of its proximity with Populonia, known in those times as Lucumonia, and also because of the presence of minerals and a large forest. Between the 9th and 5th centuries B.C, it was the cornerstone of intensive mining activity. Its name first appeared in 1285 with the name of Torre di San Vincenzo, from the name of a coastal tower built by the Pisani, which still exists and now belongs to the municipality.
Later the city, was conquered by the Romans, and they built Via Aurelia and most likely a village and a dock there.
The new lords of Tuscany, the Longobards, built beginning in the year 1000, on an imposing hill, the Biserno Castle (in the vicinity of the current mines of San Carlo) that passed into the hands of the counts of the Della Gherardesca family. In 1304 the Republic of Pisa destroyed the Castle and built a new coastal Tower, starting the development of the first inhabited center which was composed of fishermen’s and farmer’s houses, complete with customs and a loading dock.